Vol - 28, Issue - 05
About the Journal
[This article belongs to Volume - 28, Issue - 05]
International Medical Journal
Journal ID : IMJ-19-04-2021-837
Total View : 373

Abstract : SARS-CoV2 (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2) has been the cause for the pandemic, Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19). The immune responses exhibited by the individuals to COVID-19 are highly heterogeneous. What is intriguing is the fact that in majority of individuals the immune response seems ineffective and, in few individuals, especially with severe disease there seems to be exaggerated or abnormal immune response. This article has been decided to focus on the understanding the immunopathogenesis caused by SARS-CoV2 infection. The study included 50 articles published in the last 20 years searched in PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane library, PubMed Central, UpToDate and Medline. The collected articles include original articles, review articles as well as case reports and case series. Since this article was a review article, it did not require ethics approval. Ethics approval was not obtained as it was a review article. SARS-CoV2 virus presents with clinical manifestations ranging from respiratory system to central nervous system manifestations. Presentation is highly heterogeneous varying irrespective of age, sex, presence or absence of comorbid conditions. Inflammatory mechanisms are found to play a role in the severity of the disease. The proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines are activated with increased number in SARS-C0V2 infections. When the extent of viral infection or magnitude of antigen to be handled by the inflammatory response is adequate resulting in recovery. When the viral load is high the anti-inflammatory response is not sufficient to match that of the proinflammatory effects resulting in mortality or prolonged morbidity.

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