International Medical Journal (ISSN:13412051)

Aim and Scope

Aim-

International Medical Journal ISSN: (13412051) is an international open-access journal publishes twelve times each year. The "International Medical Journal" is a peer-reviewed, monthly, online international research journal, which publishes original articles, research articles, review articles with top-level work from all areas of Medical Science Research and their application including Aetiology, bioengineering, biomedicine, cardiology, chiropody, ENT etc. Researchers in all Medical Science and Pharmacy fields are encouraged to contribute articles based on recent research. Journal publishes research articles and reviews within the whole field of Medical Science and Pharmacy Research, and it will continue to provide information on the latest trends and developments in this ever-expanding subject. International Medical Journal journal covers almost all disciplines of Medical Science and Pharmacy. Researchers and students of M.B.B.S, M.D., D.T.C.D., GYNE., M.S., M.Pharma, And PhD are requested to send their original research articles to International Medical Journal.

Scope-

International Medical Journal ISSN: (13412051) is a peer-reviewed journal. The journal seeks to publish original research articles that are hypothetical and theoretical in its nature and that provide exploratory insights in the following fields but not limited to:

Anatomy Physiology Biochemistry Pharmacology
Pathology Forensic medicine Microbiology Community Medicine
Otorhinolaryngology Internal Medicine General Surgery Obstetrics and Gynecology
Radiology Pulmonary Medicine Dermatology and Venereal diseases Infectious Diseases
Anaesthesia Cancer research Neurosurgery Orthopedics

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Latest Journals
International Medical Journal
Journal ID : IMJ-08-04-2021-829
Total View : 346

Abstract : Tumor associated macrophages (TAMs) and COX-2 has been reported in association with tumorigenesis, invasion, angiogenesis and metastasis of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC). In this study, we used immunohistochemistry on a total number of 30 cases to study histomorphological spectrum and investigate density of TAMs (CD 68) within or at the periphery of tumor along with COX‐2 expression in a series of metastatic tumors of skin i.e. squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma and sebaceous cell carcinoma. The maximum patients (33%) were seen in fifth decade with predilection of male gender (60%). The mean age (years) for basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and sebaceous cell carcinoma were 65.59 ± 8.02, 61.17 ± 22.95 and 55.00 ± 0 respectively. Cheek (20%) was more commonly involved site with ulcer (43%) as most common presentation. A significant statistical correlation was found with respect to lesion size (p 0.02) and sun exposure (0.027). Maximum patients were of BCC while maximum association with sun exposure and expression of TAM and COX-2 immunostaining were observed in BCC. In this study, almost 80% and all cases of NMSC simultaneously showed significant expression of COX-2 and TAM (CD 68) respectively but no statistical correlation was found between the various NMSC histological types and differentiation of squamous cell carcinoma as p value was >0.05. Conclusions: We can conclude that both COX-2 and TAM (CD 68) may play role in the develpoment of NMSC as maximum cases showed positivity for both the markers..
Full article
International Medical Journal
Journal ID : IMJ-08-04-2021-828
Total View : 354

Abstract : ACE2 is a type one transmembrane metallo carboxypeptidase with similarity to ACE. Heart, vessels, gut, kidney, respiratory organ, testicle, brain these are the organ in which ACE2 receptor is widely expressed. It acts as a key player in renin angiotensin system and serves as a target for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Angiotensin II, a compound with angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity, regulates vascular tone, stimulates the development of proinflammatory cytokines, inhibits NFkappaB, enhances oxidant stress, and suppresses nitric oxide synthesis. Thus, angiotensin-II is basically pro-inflammatory, thus the ACE inhibitors and ARBs used as therapeutic agents will reverse this effect and will decrease inflammatory mediators. ACE inhibitors and the ARBs will decrease the renal damage of SARS COV nephropathy by reducing the macrophage infiltration. Current evidence does not prove any negative impact of ARB and ACEI on Covid-19. It is clear from the mechanism based evidences that the ACE inhibitors and the ARBs are having much more benefits and show evidence of efficacy and show promise in tackling all the three dangerous comorbidities of SARS COV 2 i.e. Heart disease, glomerular diseases and Diabetes Mellitus, discontinuing them only for the sake of small increase in ACE II expression will be unjustified. Those patients having the indications can be continued for ACE inhibitors and the ARBs with or without SARS COV 2..
Full article
International Medical Journal
Journal ID : IMJ-07-04-2021-827
Total View : 388

Abstract : Platelet rich plasma (PRP) is an autologously derived biological product from a sample of the patient’s blood. The obtained product after centrifugation consists of a plasma fraction with a platelet concentration higher than that in circulating blood. Platelet rich plasma (PRP) gel is a type of advanced wound therapy of fairly recent interest used for both chronic and acute wounds across various branches of medicine. It is rich in cytokines, growth factors, and chemokines. Not only does it form a fibrin scaffold, accelerating wound healing but also confers antibiotic properties. The well-orchestrated mechanism and products of platelet activation are responsible for these properties. In our study, we discuss a series of 30 cases of wound of varying etiologies wherein PRP gel prepared using cost effective methods was used. Our study included wounds of various etiologies wherein, 8 (26.67%) were diabetic wounds, 8 (26.67%) were due to venous insufficiency, 5 (16.67%) were post-surgical wounds, 6 (20%) were traumatic ulcers and 3 (10%) were pressure ulcers. The mean wound contraction rates achieved after 4 weeks was found to be 91.53%. Autologous PRP seems to be a safe and cost effective biological agent which can be used for treatment of small ulcers of various etiologies with good wound contraction rates..
Full article
International Medical Journal
Journal ID : IMJ-06-04-2021-825
Total View : 429

Abstract : Low back pain is the fourth most common cause of disability-associated years worldwide. The sacral hiatus is an arched gap on the dorsal surface of the sacrum. It is a continuation of the sacral canal that contains the sacrococcygeal nerves, fibro-fatty tissue, and filum terminale. Anatomical variations of the sacral hiatus are associated with a high risk of low back pain. This study aimed to compare sacral hiatal parameters between patients with low back pain and healthy individual and determine the relationship between hiatal parameters and low back pain. A case-control study was conducted at PNS Shifa Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan, and Advanced Radiology Clinic, Karachi, Pakistan. After ethics review committee approval, 89 participants each were enrolled as cases and controls. Anteroposterior and lateral view X-rays of the lumbosacral spine were obtained. Hiatal apex and base were observed with reference to the level of the sacral vertebra. The length, width, and depth were measured using bony landmarks. There were 75 males and 103 females. The significant parameters were the hiatal shapes (p-value=0.047), apex (p-value=0.004), length (p-value<0.001) and width (p-value=0.008). The risk of low back pain was detected with shapes inverted U (O.R:1.621) and M (O.R:2.000), the apex at S1 (O.R:2.5) and S2 (O.R:1.713), base at S3 (O.R:1.33) and S4 (O.R: 1.2), variations in length, width, and depth. We identified hiatal shape, the apex and base (above S3), length (>30mm), and width (>13mm) as the risk factors for low back pain in this cohort..
Full article
International Medical Journal
Journal ID : IMJ-05-04-2021-824
Total View : 347

Abstract : Cardiac Autonomic Neuropathy (CAN) is a chronic complication of diabetes mellitus and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Though very common, it is frequently under diagnosed. So CAN should be identified early to prevent its debilitating complications. To estimate the prevalence of Cardiac autonomic neuropathy (CAN) in type-II Diabetes Mellitus participants in a tertiary care hospital. This was a cross-sectional study undertaken in a tertiary care hospital from December 2019 to November 2020. A total of 273 patients with type-II diabetes mellitus of either gender were selected for the study. A questionnaire with socio demographic details, anthropometric measurements, laboratory parameters & ewings noninvasive cardiac autonomic neuropathy reflex tests for detecting CAN were administered to each participant. Based on ewings and clarkes criteria, Patients with CAN were categorized in to early, definite and severe type of CAN. Data were analysed using SPSS 16. In this study the prevalence of CAN among type-II diabetic patients was found to be 34% (93/273). Among the patients with CAN, Definite CAN was found among majority of patients 55% (51/93) followed by early 39% (36/93) and advance (6%) (6/93). E-I ratio was abnormal 58/93(62%), borderline 22/93(24%) and normal 13/93 (14%), 30:15 ratios were abnormal 46/93 (50%) than borderline 26/93 (28%) and normal 21/93 (22%) and Valsalva ratio was borderline 55/93 (58%) than abnormal 27/93 (30%) and normal 11/93 (12%) among the type-II diabetes with CAN positive. The average means of age, BMI, duration of diabetes & HbA1c were significantly high in CAN Positive participants compared to Non CAN participants. In our study Prevalence of CAN among type-II diabetes was 34 %. As prevalence is high, it is recommended that type-II diabetes patients should be examined frequently for CAN by using these simple bedside tests..
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