International Medical Journal (ISSN:13412051)

Aim and Scope

Aim-

International Medical Journal ISSN: (13412051) is an international open-access journal publishes twelve times each year. The "International Medical Journal" is a peer-reviewed, monthly, online international research journal, which publishes original articles, research articles, review articles with top-level work from all areas of Medical Science Research and their application including Aetiology, bioengineering, biomedicine, cardiology, chiropody, ENT etc. Researchers in all Medical Science and Pharmacy fields are encouraged to contribute articles based on recent research. Journal publishes research articles and reviews within the whole field of Medical Science and Pharmacy Research, and it will continue to provide information on the latest trends and developments in this ever-expanding subject. International Medical Journal journal covers almost all disciplines of Medical Science and Pharmacy. Researchers and students of M.B.B.S, M.D., D.T.C.D., GYNE., M.S., M.Pharma, And PhD are requested to send their original research articles to International Medical Journal. Azerbaijan Medical Journal

Scope-

International Medical Journal ISSN: (13412051) is a peer-reviewed journal. The journal seeks to publish original research articles that are hypothetical and theoretical in its nature and that provide exploratory insights in the following fields but not limited to:

Anatomy Physiology Biochemistry Pharmacology
Pathology Forensic medicine Microbiology Community Medicine
Otorhinolaryngology Internal Medicine General Surgery Obstetrics and Gynecology
Radiology Pulmonary Medicine Dermatology and Venereal diseases Infectious Diseases
Anaesthesia Cancer research Neurosurgery Orthopedics

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Latest Journals
International Medical Journal
Journal ID : IMJ-07-08-2021-835
Total View : 695

Abstract :

Tumor associated macrophages (TAMs) and COX-2 has been reported in association with tumorigenesis, invasion, angiogenesis and metastasis of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC). In this study, we used immunohistochemistry on a total number of 30 cases to study histomorphological spectrum and investigate density of TAMs (CD 68) within or at the periphery of tumor along with COX‐2 expression in a series of metastatic tumors of skin i.e. squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma and sebaceous cell carcinoma. The maximum patients (33%) were seen in fifth decade with predilection of male gender (60%). The mean age (years) for basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and sebaceous cell carcinoma were 65.59 ± 8.02, 61.17 ± 22.95 and 55.00 ± 0 respectively. Cheek (20%) was more commonly involved site with ulcer (43%) as most common presentation. A significant statistical correlation was found with respect to lesion size (p 0.02) and sun exposure (0.027). Maximum patients were of BCC while maximum association with sun exposure and expression of TAM and COX-2 immunostaining were observed in BCC. In this study, almost 80% and all cases of NMSC simultaneously showed significant expression of COX-2 and TAM (CD 68) respectively but no statistical correlation was found between the various NMSC histological types and differentiation of squamous cell carcinoma as p value was >0.05. Conclusions: We can conclude that both COX-2 and TAM (CD 68) may play role in the development of NMSC as maximum cases showed positivity for both the markers.

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Full article
International Medical Journal
Journal ID : IMJ-07-08-2021-834
Total View : 674

Abstract :

ACE2 is a type one transmembrane metallo carboxypeptidase with similarity to ACE. Heart, vessels, gut, kidney, respiratory organ, testicle, brain these are the organ in which ACE2 receptor is widely expressed. It acts as a key player in renin angiotensin system and serves as a target for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Angiotensin II, a compound with angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity, regulates vascular tone, stimulates the development of proinflammatory cytokines, inhibits NFkappaB, enhances oxidant stress, and suppresses nitric oxide synthesis. Thus, angiotensin-II is basically pro-inflammatory, thus the ACE inhibitors and ARBs used as therapeutic agents will reverse this effect and will decrease inflammatory mediators. ACE inhibitors and the ARBs will decrease the renal damage of SARS COV nephropathy by reducing the macrophage infiltration. Current evidence does not prove any negative impact of ARB and ACEI on Covid-19. It is clear from the mechanism based evidences that the ACE inhibitors and the ARBs are having much more benefits and show evidence of efficacy and show promise in tackling all the three dangerous comorbidities of SARS COV 2 i.e. Heart disease, glomerular diseases and Diabetes Mellitus, discontinuing them only for the sake of small increase in ACE II expression will be unjustified. Those patients having the indications can be continued for ACE inhibitors and the ARBs with or without SARS COV 2.

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Full article
International Medical Journal
Journal ID : IMJ-07-08-2021-833
Total View : 768

Abstract :

Platelet rich plasma (PRP) is an autologously derived biological product from a sample of the patient’s blood. The obtained product after centrifugation consists of a plasma fraction with a platelet concentration higher than that in circulating blood. Platelet rich plasma (PRP) gel is a type of advanced wound therapy of fairly recent interest used for both chronic and acute wounds across various branches of medicine. It is rich in cytokines, growth factors, and chemokines. Not only does it form a fibrin scaffold, accelerating wound healing but also confers antibiotic properties. The well-orchestrated mechanism and products of platelet activation are responsible for these properties. In our study, we discuss a series of 30 cases of wound of varying etiologies wherein PRP gel prepared using cost effective methods was used. Our study included wounds of various etiologies wherein, 8 (26.67%) were diabetic wounds, 8 (26.67%) were due to venous insufficiency, 5 (16.67%) were post-surgical wounds, 6 (20%) were traumatic ulcers and 3 (10%) were pressure ulcers. The mean wound contraction rates achieved after 4 weeks was found to be 91.53%. Autologous PRP seems to be a safe and cost effective biological agent which can be used for treatment of small ulcers of various etiologies with good wound contraction rates.

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Full article
International Medical Journal
Journal ID : IMJ-07-08-2021-832
Total View : 785

Abstract :

Low back pain is the fourth most common cause of disability-associated years worldwide. The sacral hiatus is an arched gap on the dorsal surface of the sacrum. It is a continuation of the sacral canal that contains the sacrococcygeal nerves, fibro-fatty tissue, and filum terminale. Anatomical variations of the sacral hiatus are associated with a high risk of low back pain. This study aimed to compare sacral hiatal parameters between patients with low back pain and healthy individual and determine the relationship between hiatal parameters and low back pain. A case-control study was conducted at PNS Shifa Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan, and Advanced Radiology Clinic, Karachi, Pakistan. After ethics review committee approval, 89 participants each were enrolled as cases and controls. Anteroposterior and lateral view X-rays of the lumbosacral spine were obtained. Hiatal apex and base were observed with reference to the level of the sacral vertebra. The length, width, and depth were measured using bony landmarks. There were 75 males and 103 females. The significant parameters were the hiatal shapes (p-value=0.047), apex (p-value=0.004), length (p-value<0.001) and width (p-value=0.008). The risk of low back pain was detected with shapes inverted U (O.R:1.621) and M (O.R:2.000), the apex at S1 (O.R:2.5) and S2 (O.R:1.713), base at S3 (O.R:1.33) and S4 (O.R: 1.2), variations in length, width, and depth. We identified hiatal shape, the apex and base (above S3), length (>30mm), and width (>13mm) as the risk factors for low back pain in this cohort.

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Full article
International Medical Journal
Journal ID : IMJ-07-08-2021-830
Total View : 689

Abstract :

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) was first reported in December 2019, in the City of Wuhan, China. Within the span of a few weeks, the disease had spread to other regions of China and eventually to different parts of the world. COVID 19 has affected 221 countries and territories around the world, with a total of 111,970,286 positive cases and 2,478,354 deaths as on 22nd February 2021. Accurate disease diagnosis (for the SARS-Cov-2 virus and variants), coupled to patient isolation are currently critical strategies in restricting disease spread. Due to lack of time during this pandemic the diagnostics assays were not adequately validated. Infected individuals at times could potentially be missed by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) for SARS-CoV-2 tests due to incorrect/inefficient sampling procedure, low limit of detection and epidemiology of the virus. rRT-PCR test results should be interpreted in conjunction with clinical examination and Computed Tomography (CT), particularly in suspected symptomatic individuals or those with epidemiological history of contact with known COVID-19 cases. Considering the above-mentioned constraints, the current scenario demands rapid and point-of-care tests for detection of SARS-CoV-2 in remote locations. To date, there is no reliable commercially available antigen detection kit. The infected subjects reveal low levels of antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 through the early period of infection. In addition, techniques such as, Digital RT-PCR technology and isothermal RNA amplification with electrochemical biosensors are some of the new technologies currently being developed to provide sensitive and specific SARS-Cov-2 antigen detection. The newly reported variant, SARS-CoV-2 VUI 202012/01 may not influence diagnostic outcomes as worldwide most PCR assays use two or more (including RdRp/ E/ N) reliable gene targets, besides S gene.

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