International Medical Journal (ISSN:13412051)

Aim and Scope

Aim-

International Medical Journal ISSN: (13412051) is an international open-access journal publishes twelve times each year. The "International Medical Journal" is a peer-reviewed, monthly, online international research journal, which publishes original articles, research articles, review articles with top-level work from all areas of Medical Science Research and their application including Aetiology, bioengineering, biomedicine, cardiology, chiropody, ENT etc. Researchers in all Medical Science and Pharmacy fields are encouraged to contribute articles based on recent research. Journal publishes research articles and reviews within the whole field of Medical Science and Pharmacy Research, and it will continue to provide information on the latest trends and developments in this ever-expanding subject. International Medical Journal journal covers almost all disciplines of Medical Science and Pharmacy. Researchers and students of M.B.B.S, M.D., D.T.C.D., GYNE., M.S., M.Pharma, And PhD are requested to send their original research articles to International Medical Journal.

Scope-

International Medical Journal ISSN: (13412051) is a peer-reviewed journal. The journal seeks to publish original research articles that are hypothetical and theoretical in its nature and that provide exploratory insights in the following fields but not limited to:

Anatomy Physiology Biochemistry Pharmacology
Pathology Forensic medicine Microbiology Community Medicine
Otorhinolaryngology Internal Medicine General Surgery Obstetrics and Gynecology
Radiology Pulmonary Medicine Dermatology and Venereal diseases Infectious Diseases
Anaesthesia Cancer research Neurosurgery Orthopedics

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Latest Journals
International Medical Journal
Journal ID : IMJ-02-08-2020-556
Total View : 336

Abstract : Inflammasome activation cytokine were associated with bad seminal fluid analysis parameters among infertile men with spinal cord injury suggesting pivotal role of NLRP3 pathway in male infertility. Objective: the present study aims to measurement of NLRP3 inflammasome mRNA expression and their activation cytokines (IL-1ß and IL-18) mRNA expression in semen samples in leukocytospermia and none leukocytospermia infertile men. Methods: semen specimen were collected from 264 infertile men; conventional semen analysis was done according to World Health Organization 2010. Total RNA was extracted from whole semen cells pellet then the relative mRNA expression of the NLRP3, IL-1ß and IL-18 in semen specimens was determined by using qRT- PCR. NLRP3 and caspase-3 proteins in both sperm and leukocytes were detected by Immunoperoxidase staining. Results: there was no significant differences in the amount of NLRP3, IL-1B and IL-18 mRNA expression and NLRP3 protein in the sperm cells between leukocytospermia and non-leukocytospermia infertile men (P>0.05). In contrary there was high significant difference in the NLRP3 protein in leukocytes between these two groups (p≤0.001). While, translated protein of caspase-3 in both sperm and leukocytes was no significantly differed between these two groups (P>0.05). Conclusion: Current study suggests that the NLRP3, IL-1ß were expressed in cellular components of semen sample and their expression unrelated to the state of leukocytospermia, while po-IL- 18 is constitutively expressed in leukocytes, epithelial cells and defective sperm cells and released from these cells into seminal fluid after undergoing to apoptosis and necrosis pathways.
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International Medical Journal
Journal ID : IMJ-25-07-2020-553
Total View : 434

Abstract : The current study was designed to evaluate the effect of EECP therapy with or without trimetazidine(TMZ) in patients with refractory angina via modulating peripheral monocyte expression of Toll like receptor4 (TLR4) and its downstream signaling. A randomized double blind control trial in which 88 stable refractory angina patients allocated into two groups, Enhanced External Counter Pulsation (EECP) group: include 44 patients with stable refractory angina were treated with EECP-Therapy. TMZ-EECP group: include 44 patients with stable refractory angina which gave TMZ 35 mg twice daily in addition to EECP-Therapy. TLR4 levels were assayed in peripheral monocyte by flow cytometry and 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α (8-iso-PGF2 α), interleukin6 (IL6), high mobility group box-1 protein (HMG- BOX) and monocytes chemoattractant protein-1(MCP-1) were also measured beforethe EECP-therapy and before the TMZ giving to patients, and after 35 hours of EECP treatment ( 7 consecutive weeks ).Inhibition in TLR4 expression in peripheral monocyte in both study groups but significantly lower expression level was observed among the TMZ-EECP group (P<0.05). Inflammatory cytokine (HMG Box-1 protein, MCP-1) were remarkably decreased in both study groups but (HMG Box-1 protein, MCP-1 and IL-6) significantly decreasing level was observed among the TMZ-EECP group (P<0.05). Also, the oxidative stress biomarker 8-iso-PGF2α were remarkably decreased in both study groups but significantly decreasing level was observed among the TMZ-EECP group (P<0.05). Timetizidine and EECP therapy decrease the release of HMGB-1 and also decreases the 8-iso-PGF2α serum level. Thus attenuate the TLR4 expression on peripheral monocytes which affect the downstream signaling of TLR4, resulting in decreasing the TLR4 downstream signaling inflammatory markers such as MCP-1 and IL6 levels which yield improvement in the quality of patient’s life by decrease frequency of angina episodes, decreasing the Short-acting nitrate use and change the exercise tolerance and distance.
Full article
International Medical Journal
Journal ID : IMJ-25-07-2020-552
Total View : 344

Abstract : Ischemic stroke has been ranked as the second cause of death in patients worldwide. Inflammation which is activated during cerebral ischemia/reperfusion is an important mechanism leading to brain injury. We aimed to investigate the effect of Berberine on cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury and its effect to treat the inflammation. The study was carried out on 36 Wistar-albino rats, divided into four groups including: Sham group, ischemia/reperfusion group, ischemia/reperfusion + dimethyl sulfoxide and ischemia/reperfusion + Berberine 5 mg/kg injected intraperitoneally 1 hour before induction of ischemia. Measurement of brain tissue IL- 1β, ICAM- 1, caspase-3, Notch 1 and Jagged 1 was done after one hour of reperfusion in addition to assessment of the brain infracted area and histopathological analysis and the scoring of brain damage were determined. Berberine attenuates cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury induced increase in IL-1β, ICAM-1 and caspase-3. The cerebral concentration of inflammatory parameter was significantly (*p<0.05) elevated in control group in comparison to sham group, while control and control- vehicle groups showed insignificant differences between them. Berberine treatment group was significantly (*p<0.05) lesser than control- vehicle group. Additionally, it reduces the size of infracted area and histopathological damage, such protective effect could be mediated by Notch 1 signaling pathway since The cerebral concentration of Notch 1 receptor was significantly (*p<0.05) elevated in control group in comparison to sham group, meanwhile control and control- vehicle groups showed insignificant differences between them. Berberine treatment showed significant further elevation in Notch 1 cerebral level in comparison with control-vehicle group. Berberine has a neurocytoprotective outcome against cerebral I/R injury which is manifested as anti-inflammatory anti-apoptotic effect that preserved cell structure and viability, which could be mediated by Notch 1 signaling pathway.
Full article
International Medical Journal
Journal ID : IMJ-25-07-2020-551
Total View : 434

Abstract : Shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) is an efficient, simple, minimally invasive therapeutic modality used to treat urinary tract stone disease. However, the pain during SWL remains a limiting factor for this procedure. Here, we compared the efficiencies and adverse effects of ketorolac, paracetamol, and Nefopam as potential analgesics during SWL. Methodology: One hundred and fifty-eight patients were recruited and divided into three groups: Group I patients received 1 g paracetamol; Group II patients received 20 mg Nefopam; and Group III patients received 30 mg ketorolac. All the analgesics were administered intravenously 30 min prior to the procedure. A visual analog scale (VAS) was employed for pain assessment. As supplemental analgesia, 1 mg/kg body weight pethidine was used. The degree of satisfaction and possible side effects of all patients were recorded before discharge. Results: Among the 158 patients, 73 (46.2%) and 85 (53.7%) patients were male and female, respectively. The mean age of the patients was 44.15 ± 11.4 years. There were no major complications during the procedure. With time, all three groups showed marked decline in VAS scores, compared to the baseline values. Four, seven, and five patients from Groups I, II, and III, respectively, complained of nausea. Compared to Groups II and III, higher proportion of patients in Group I required supplementary analgesia; however, the difference was not significant. Conclusion: The analgesic efficiencies of paracetamol and ketorolac were comparable. Furthermore, Nefopam was found to be the safest and most effective analgesic during SWL.
Full article
International Medical Journal
Journal ID : IMJ-25-07-2020-550
Total View : 354

Abstract : Nurses are exposed to workplace violence more than other health care employees because they have close contact with the patient and their companions. Nurses' attitudes and their self- efficacy toward violence are considered as important factors in controlling the consequences of workplace violence. In addition, their attitudes and self-efficacy can minimize probable cause harm in workplace. Therefore, this study examines the relationship between nurses' attitudes and their self-efficacy towards workplace violence. This study is a descriptive correlational research implemenented in 1397. Participants taking part in this study were180 nurses working in psychiatric and emergency departments of Imam Hossein and Ayatollah Taleghani hospitals in Tehran. The procedure of sampling was based on availabaitly of participants. For collecting data, researchers took advantage of demograpghic form and questionnaires about attitude and self-efficacy towards violence against nurses. The procedure of analysis has been done with SPSS software (version 25). In addition, descriptive and inferential statistics tests have been run. The considered significance level was 0.05. The paricipants of this sample were 180 nurses (46 males and 134 females). Their age ranged between 33/61±6/87and their job experience was 9/82±4/47. Results showed that 98/8 % of nurses confronted with violence in healthcare setting. There was a positive and significant correlation between attitude and self-efficac with workplace violence (p = 0.001 and r = 0.875). There was also a significant relationship between nurses' attitudes and self-efficacy with their age and level of education (p <0.05). There is a direct relationship between nurses' attitudes and self-efficacy towards violence against them in the workplace. Consequently, improving nurses 'attitudes and holding workshopsfor increasing nurses' self-efficacy is influential in effiectively encountering with violence in the workplace.
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