International Medical Journal (ISSN:13412051)

Aim and Scope

Aim-

International Medical Journal ISSN: (13412051) is an international open-access journal publishes twelve times each year. The "International Medical Journal" is a peer-reviewed, monthly, online international research journal, which publishes original articles, research articles, review articles with top-level work from all areas of Medical Science Research and their application including Aetiology, bioengineering, biomedicine, cardiology, chiropody, ENT etc. Researchers in all Medical Science and Pharmacy fields are encouraged to contribute articles based on recent research. Journal publishes research articles and reviews within the whole field of Medical Science and Pharmacy Research, and it will continue to provide information on the latest trends and developments in this ever-expanding subject. International Medical Journal journal covers almost all disciplines of Medical Science and Pharmacy. Researchers and students of M.B.B.S, M.D., D.T.C.D., GYNE., M.S., M.Pharma, And PhD are requested to send their original research articles to International Medical Journal. Azerbaijan Medical Journal Gongcheng Kexue Yu Jishu/Advanced Engineering Science Zhonghua er bi yan hou tou jing wai ke za zhi = Chinese journal of otorhinolaryngology head and neck surgery

Scope-

International Medical Journal ISSN: (13412051) is a peer-reviewed journal. The journal seeks to publish original research articles that are hypothetical and theoretical in its nature and that provide exploratory insights in the following fields but not limited to:

Anatomy Physiology Biochemistry Pharmacology
Pathology Forensic medicine Microbiology Community Medicine
Otorhinolaryngology Internal Medicine General Surgery Obstetrics and Gynecology
Radiology Pulmonary Medicine Dermatology and Venereal diseases Infectious Diseases
Anaesthesia Cancer research Neurosurgery Orthopedics

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Latest Journals
International Medical Journal
Journal ID : IMJ-15-09-2021-931
Total View : 344

Abstract : Cancer is a disease in humans that can cause death it has become one of the world's major health issues. One of the causes of cancer is an infectious agent. Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) and Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) are infectious agents that can cause liver cancer. GLOBOCAN 2018 provides an overview of the incidence and mortality rates for 36 forms of cancer in numerous nations, including ASEAN countries, including liver cancer caused by both HBV and HCV. This research aims to estimate the premature mortality cost of liver cancer caused by infectious agents (HBV and HCV) in ASEAN countries. This research is a descriptive study, based on data from the GLOBOCAN 2018 database on the incidence and mortality rates of liver cancer in ASEAN countries, divided into gender and age categories. Relative Risk (RR) from liver cancer and prevalence from each HBV and HCV for calculating Population Attributable Fractions (PAFs) were obtained by reviewing previous studies about liver cancer and also HBV and HCV. Premature mortality cost was determined by multiplying the mortality of liver cancer caused by HBV and HCV infection, the life expectancy of each ASEAN country, and the average income of each ASEAN country. Thailand has the highest premature mortality cost for male group for HBV-related liver cancer (US$ 49.32 million) and Vietnam has the highest cost for HCV infection (US$ 136.14 million). Premature mortality cost in Thailand (US$ 21.26 million) has the highest premature mortality cost for HBV-related liver cancer in females, whereas Vietnam (US$ 39.73 million) has the highest cost for HCV-related liver cancer. According to the findings of this study, the burden of liver cancer caused by HBV and HCV in ASEAN could have a significant impact on health costs and quality of life. To lower the prevalence and mortality of liver cancer caused by HBV and HCV in the future, preventing the risk factors that cause the disease should be a top priority in the national health strategy. This study has brought the burden of liver cancer to ASEAN, which will be useful in developing health policies and plans to reduce liver cancer's prevalence and death..
Full article
International Medical Journal
Journal ID : IMJ-14-09-2021-930
Total View : 349

Abstract : Rhinoliths are calcified masses that are formed on a neglected intra-nasal foreign bodies and are known to grow over a number of years. These are rare entities reported in clinical practice as unusual cause of unilateral nasal obstruction and foul smelling nasal discharge. The diagnosis is established on the basis of a proper medical history and endoscopic findings, imaging modality especially computed tomography (CT) provides additional information. Most cases of rhinolith are accidentally detected while treating conditions like sinusitis. The reported cases in this series were seen in the ENT outpatient clinic at a tertiary teaching hospital. The patients presented mainly with symptoms like nasal block, purulent, malodorous or foetid nasal discharge and facial pain. Rigid diagnostic nasal endoscopy and computerised tomography scan were done to assess the size, site and shape of the rhinoliths. The rhinoliths were removed under general or local anaesthesia in our operating room. Observation- We report 4 cases of rhinolith in this series which were removed endoscopically and a neglected foreign body which was the nidus was found in 2 of these cases being plastic earring back and a piece of eraser, while as in 2 case which did not show any evidence of nidus one had a positive history of frequent epistaxis where blood clot could have been the endogenous agent acting as a nidus, and in the other case no such history was present. The presence of a rhinolith is an uncommon condition that results from the complete or partial encrustation of an intra-nasal foreign body and should always be considered as a differential diagnosis in a patient presenting with foul-smelling unilateral nasal discharge with or without nasal obstruction..
Full article
International Medical Journal
Journal ID : IMJ-13-09-2021-929
Total View : 358

Abstract : The bidirectional gut brain axis has gained a lot of importance recently. The gut brain axis is made up of various systems, which includes the endocrine, immune, autonomic, and enteric nervous system. The human microbiota has been linked to various health and disease components. Gut microorganisms are capable of producing and delivering neuroactive substances such as serotonin and gamma-aminobutyric acid, which act on the gut-brain axis. Few mediators have been identified which has a role in establishing communication between the gut and brain. Alteration in the bidirectional gut-brain microbiota interaction has been implicated as a possible mechanism in the pathophysiology of several brain disorders including depression. Depression can be due to various factors and to know the various mediators this review is done..
Full article
International Medical Journal
Journal ID : IMJ-11-09-2021-928
Total View : 436

Abstract : The current Corona virus disease pandemic (COVID 19) has had a wide-ranging social and economic impact throughout the world. COVID-19 can produce a variety of symptoms ranging from moderate to severe. Hyperactivation of the immune system, particularly the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines like interleukin-6 (IL-6), might be a significant factor in the pathogenesis of COVID-19-related severe illness. The World Health Organization (WHO) has approved the use of Interleukin-6 (IL-6) blockers — tocilizumab and sarilumab — as part of COVID-19 management protocol based on meta-analysis of 27 clinical trials for this drug conducted on 10,000 patients. second drug ever recommended by WHO for COVID-19, will remain unaffordable and inaccessible for most of the world. Around 60 articles were reviewed from the databases PubMed, Scopus, Embase, Web of Science and Google scholar using the key words – SARS CoV 2, cytokine storms, Interleukin, immunomodulators and tocilizumab. Relevant 33 articles were considered for this review. There are no clinical trial results to back up any preventive treatment. There are now over 300 active clinical therapy studies. Tocilizumab (TCZ) is a human monoclonal antibody that competitively inhibits the binding of interleukin-6 (IL-6) to its receptor (IL-6R). It is used to treat inflammatory and autoimmune conditions. Next to dexamethasone, WHO recommended drug for cytokine storm in COVID 19 patients was tocilizumab. Early reports of tocilizumab treatment in COVID-19 patients showed promising results, but little sample sizes questioned their dependability. Treatment with tocilizumab also reported to have favorable changes on CT findings, CRP and IL levels. In contrast, another study has shown administration of tocilizumab did not significantly affect the ICU admission or 7-day mortality rate when compared with the control group. No therapy is approved for COVID-19 pneumonia. Though adverse events have been associated with tocilizumab usage, no conclusive evidence suggests that these were directly attributed to tocilizumab therapy. Also with this available limited data, it could not be assured that tocilizumab has additional benefits on severe COVID affected cases..
Full article
International Medical Journal
Journal ID : IMJ-09-09-2021-926
Total View : 394

Abstract : It is important to reduce amount of bleeding during lower segment caesarean section so as to reduce maternal morbidity due to bleeding. To control bleeding after CS, some medications such as oxytocin, prostaglandins (E1, E2, and F2α), and methylergonovine have been used. Treatment of PPH relies primarily on uterotonics, but early use of tranexamic acid (TXA) has become part of several recommended algorithms. However, the role of IV tranexamic acid has not been effectively evaluated in reducing blood loss during caesarean section, hence the need for this study. Patients with singleton pregnancy and gestational age ≥ 35 weeks were included in the study. Women were randomized into 2 groups- Group I and Group II, for two arm study with 75 subjects in each group. Preoperative haemoglobin was estimated in both the groups. 1-gram dose was chosen for this study. Tranexemic acid was not given to Group 1 while Group 2 were given TXA injection prepared by diluting 1 gram (10ml) TXA in 100ml of normal saline. At the end of the study, the collected data was analyzed. TXA was found to effective in reducing blood loss in study group. Mean blood loss in present study was 529.77 ml in control group and 411.05 ml in TXA group with p value of <0.05. Mean percentage fall in haemoglobin (gm/dl) in control group was 12.19 ± 3.64 which was significantly higher as compared to TXA group (8.93 ± 4.25) with p value of <0.0001. Tranexamic acid was found to be safe and effective in reducing blood loss after LSCS. In the present study, there was less drop in haemoglobin and haematocrit in tranexamic acid group. Tranexamic acid was not associated with any severe adverse drug reactions like thrombosis and hence it can be safely used for prevention of PPH. It was concluded that Tranexamic acid, plays a beneficial role in preventing PPH and maternal mortality..
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