: The relationship between Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and malignancies became evident in the early HIV/AIDS epidemic, because of altered cell-mediated immunity. World Health Organization (WHO) has clinically divided 4 different clinical stages of HIV. WHO clinical stage 4 includes HIV associated with malignancies. Micronuclear (MN) assay on exfoliated buccal cells is a useful and minimally invasive method for monitoring genetic damage in humans. The MN frequency in the healthy population was reported to be 1-3/1000 cells, which may increase in number indicating the DNA damage, which has further influenced the trend towards malignancies in different pathological conditions. HIV being one of the important pathological conditions in the present society, it was an important step to study its influence on malignancy. The present study aims to determine MN changes in the exfoliated oral mucosal cells using a standardized protocol of Giemsa staining method in HIV infected and non-HIV infected individuals and to analyze the frequency of micronuclei in exfoliated cells of buccal mucosa associated with age, sex, and HIV-associated factors. A cross-sectional study with a sample size of 100, was done to study the micronuclei (MN) frequencies in the exfoliated buccal mucosal cells using a standardized protocol of the Giemsa staining method in HIV infected individuals and age-matched controls. The mean number of MN was significantly high in buccal scrapings of HIV-infected and non-HIV-infected individuals and also influenced by age, sex, and HIV-associated factors. No reported data is available regarding Micronuclear assay in Buccal smear among HIV patients in India the Indian population..