: The prevalence of diabetes in Morocco is especially high in the eastern region and has been increasing in recent years, hence the need for an in-depth study of this population. Our objective is to study the risk factors of diabetes and its complications in the eastern region. 3976 diabetics were included in this retrospective study. Clinical, biological, therapeutic and anthropometric data were collected from patient records. The mean age of the patients was 56.24 years (± 16.36 SD), with a clear predominance of females 65%. According to the type of diabetes, type 2 diabetes remains by far the most frequent pathology with (92%). The frequency of complications is around 1/3. One diabetic out of four has at least one modifiable cardiovascular risk factor: arterial hypertension at 25.35%, dyslipidemia at 12.67%, overweight and obesity at 35.48% and 27.8%. The most discriminating factors in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications in order of importance are age of diabetes, hypertension, Hb1c and dyslipidemia, statistically significant associations were found with p 0.0082, 0.0001, 0.002, 0.0001 respectively). Then a multifactorial analysis coupled with a hierarchical ascending classification (CAH) in birth data to two large groups of diabetics with complications and those without complications. This report highlights the extent of diabetes and its complications in the eastern region. In this respect, a national program declined at the regional level for the reduction of environmental risk factors must be considered in the short term..